The contribution of agriculture in the economy of the country is important and significant. Agriculture sector makes up about 14% of GDP of the country and as far as the State of Bihar is concerned agriculture’s contribution is even greater at about 18%. The dependence of population on agriculture in Bihar is far greater than the rest of the country. Natural resources and favorable conditions for the development of agriculture such as fertile soil, water and conducive weather conditions are available in the state. The per unit productivity in agriculture, dairy, meat production, fisheries and plantation is lower than the average productivity found during scientific research. In this background many important steps have been taken for rapid development of Agriculture in the state.
First Agriculture Road Map was introduced in the year 2008 which was valid for the period 2008-2012. The 2nd Agriculture Road Map was prepared for the period 2012-2017. The implementation of first and second agriculture road map has resulted in significant and substantial success in terms of agricultural development in the State. Government of India has given ‘Krishi Karman Award’ to the State of Bihar for outstanding achievements in the production of Rice for the year 2012, for wheat in 2013 and for maize in 2016. The experience gained during the implementation of first two road maps and the current circumstances and conditions have been kept in mind while developing the third Agriculture Road Map. The working period of Third Agriculture Road Map is from 2017 to 2022 and it incorporates major strategies and programs.
The following 12 Departments are working for effective implementation of the Agriculture Road Map:-
2. Animal Husbandry and fisheries.
3. Water resources.
4. Minor water resources.
6. Revenue and land Reforms.
7. Food and Consumer Protection.
8. Energy Department.
9. Environment and Forest Department.
10. Rural Work Department.
11. Industry Department.
12. Sugarcane Industry.
Except the Industry Department, Sugarcane Industry Department and Rural Works Department the remaining 9 departments work under the supervision of the Agriculture Sub Mission. Industry and Sugarcane Industry Department are part of Industries and Business Sub Mission where as Rural Works Department operates under Infrastructure Sub Mission.
1. Agriculture Department :-
According to the geographical structure and changing needs of the State, region-wise strategies and programs have been formulated for the successful implementation of third Agriculture Road Map. The department is making meaningful effort to bring about an over arching revolution in the state through various programs in the field of organic farming, food security, nutrition security, inclusive growth and ways to bring about an increase in the income of farmers.
Seed Management :-
- In order to promote the production of certified seed and encourage the farmers for the same a subsidy scheme will be implemented.
- Under the Bihar State Entrepreneurship Development Program, certified seed production will be encouraged by encouraging farmers for the production of certified seed of paddy, wheat, pulses and oilseeds.
- The capacity for managing seeds has to be increased and a target of 10 lakhs quintal has been set.
- Humidity control equipment will be installed in warehouses and Seed bank will be developed for contingent crop plan.
- Under the Horticulture Development, many productive steps will be taken such as production of quality plant material, efforts to develop gardens in cluster, to promote the beekeeping, save garden campaigns for old gardens, protective farming, self employment of women by promoting mushroom production.Also efforts will be made to increase the farmer’s income through new technology based schemes which will benefit our farmers.
- Keeping in view the requirement of tissue culture laboratory, provision has been made to provide assistance for installation of tissue culture laboratory in private sector.
- Programs will be designed to preserve the premium varieties such as Shahi Lichi of Muzaffarpur, jardaalu Mangoes of Bhagalpur and Digha Maldah mangoes of Patna etc. and expand their area of cultivation
- There is a program for expansion of pineapple and Makhana cultivation.
- The main horticulture crop has been identified for each district. Programs will be run for the development of the crop.
Organic Farming :-
Organic Farming is being promoted to keep the fertile strength of soil intact and for ensuring sustainable farming. Several important steps have been taken through different schemes to promote Organic Farming for the protection of the environment.
- Establishment of Organic Corridor - To maintain the continuous flow in the river Ganga, in the backdrop of the Patna Declaration, there is an innovative plan to construct organic corridors on either side of the Ganga coast and national as well as state highways.
- Establishment of Ideal Organic Village – under the pilot project for the establishment of ideal organic village one village will be selected in every district and all the interested people will be encouraged to set up units for the production of vermi compost and Gobar Gas.
- Farmers will be provided grants twice a year prior to the sowing season to encourage organic vegetable production under Agriculture Input Subsidy Program.
- Agriculture Marketing System- A website will be developed which will display in real time the prices prevailing in the main mandis. Large scale modern silos and warehouses will be built in the market premises of Disintegrated Market Committees.
Agriculture Research and Education - Ongoing plan to promote distance education will be continued by the University. The University will help the farmers to solve all their problems by organizing Kisan Choupal regularly in different parts of their jurisdiction and will help in bringing new information and knowledge to the door of the farmers.
Land and Water conservation program - A consolidated water management program was developed by combining all the schemes of drought-affected area. Its main objective is to prevent water erosion, soil conservation, prevent erosion of soil in drought-prone areas. A plan for water management program has been prepared which is aimed at improving the income and quality of life of the people living in drought prone areas.
Mechanization – Interested farmers will get subsidy on various agriculture machinery through the mechanization software. Keeping small size of holdings of small and marginal farmers in mind the package of machinery has been developed for the subsidy scheme.
Strategy of Agriculture Expansion – A strategy has been developed keeping in mind the modern global needs and challenges and climate change. Efforts will be made to train farmers in some of the best centers outside the state and expose them to the new technologies in the field of agriculture. At the same time connect the new generation to some of the more remunerative aspects of agriculture. Benefits of various schemes will be transferred directly in the farmers' account.
2. Animal Husbandry and Fisheries :-
Animal Husbandry Sector:-
Animal Husbandry sector has an important position in the overall economic development of the state as well as in the field of employment. Multi dimensional programs of animal husbandry have an important role to play in poverty alleviation of the rural population, preventing them from going to other states for employment by offering them opportunities for self employment and also reducing the pressure of population on urban centers. Animal husbandry is a good option for a state like Bihar where the option of land based economy is very limited. National economic policy can be strengthened by connecting the youth power of the state to trades based on animal husbandry, dairy and fisheries sector. This will ultimately help the state in giving a real shape to the concept of inclusive growth.
- Currently, the milk production in the state is 8709.65 thousand metric tons per year and the target is to increase it to 15990 thousand metric tons by 2022.
- Presently, the milk processing capacity is 2560 thousand liters per day and the target is to increase it to 5070 thousand liters per day by 2022.
- Presently, egg production is 11116.674 lakhs per year and the target is to increase it to 54616 lakh by 2022.
- Presently, the annual production of meat is 326 thousand tonnes, which would go up to 403 thousand tonnes by 2022 as per the new targets set.
- Presently, the production of fish is 5.06 lakh tonnes, which is expected to increase to around 7.33 lakh tonnes by the year 2022 according to targets determined by the department.
Programs to be implemented under Agriculture Road Map 2017-2022, are as follows :-
- Poultry Farming Scheme.
- Goat Development Scheme.
- Animal Health Care Program.
- Artificial In Vitro Program.
- Reinforcement plan of Bihar Livestock Development Agency, Patna.
- Animal Cruelty Reduction Plan.
- Scheme for cattle development.
- Bihar Animal Science University.
- Animal Health and Production Institute.
- Scheme of training.
- Veterinary services and animal health schemes.
- Scheme for the purchase of fifty new ambulatory vans.
- Scheme of fodder production and monitoring.
Cow Husbandry :-
Cow development program plays an important role in strengthening the rural economy of the state and in creating rural employment. This scheme is being implemented by the cow development directorate and the prestigious co-operative institution COMFED. Currently, the total number of Dairy Committees constituted in the state is 20691 which is spread over 19500 (47%) villages.
Programs for the development of Agriculture Road Map 2017-2022 :-
- Overall cow development scheme.
- Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme.
- Training Program.
- Automation and reinforcement of capacity of Dairy Plant.
- Establishment of cold chain and expansion of marketing network.
- Artificial In vitro and animal nitrification.
- Establishment of modern dairy plant.
- Establishment of automatic milk storage plant.
- Expansion of capacity for circulation.
Fish is an important part of human diet and fisheries’ contribution to global employment and rural economy is substantial. One 5th of all animal proteins present in human diet is provided by fish. Rural areas traditionally have a direct impact on Bihar’s economy. Fisheries and fishing is one of the traditional activities of Bihar.
Under the third Agriculture Road Map 2017-2022 the following works will be taken up in the field of fisheries development.
- Facilitate the development and management of fisheries and hydrological agriculture with the aim of reducing poverty, increasing food and nutrition security and accelerating inclusive economic development.
- To enable organizational strengthening and capacity development and organizational restructuring and strengthening for better governance and accelerated development through strict monitoring system.
- To develop Directorate of Fisheries as a service providing agency.
- Extension of water agriculture by using modern technology and to bring about a qualitative improvement in fishery and fish seed production through favorable intensification.
- To increase the productivity of fisheries production by utilizing open water fishery resources, reservoirs and wetlands which is being utilized less efficiently and also by using appropriate technology.
- To create additional fishery based livelihood by increasing the fishery and fish seed production, using non-conventional aquatic systems like irrigation canal, health operation, logistics, processing and value addition for water agriculture and marketing of fishery and fishery seeds.
- To empower the fish farmers and agriculturists by creating awareness, organizing them, enhancing their skills so that they can effectively participate in managing and minimizing the impact of natural calamities and climate change.
- To provide a suitable environment for the development of fisheries sector.
- To increase the water agriculture production and productivity.
- Growth of Fisheries production in reservoirs and drought plains.
- To develop adaptation capacity of fishermen and small farmers and to minimize the impact of natural disasters and to incorporate the impact of climate change.
3. Water resources :-
Water is an important social and economic wealth of Bihar. Being an agricultural state it needs to develop better irrigation facilities in order to enhance livelihood and holistic development. On the other hand the state’s geographical position creates a challenge of safeguarding the life and property of the people from the floods every year. On the basis of 75% dependence, 132 billion cubic meters of surface water (BCM) is available in Bihar. In 2001, the availability of superficial water per person was 1594 cubic meters, which came down to 1213 cubic meter in 2017. It is estimated that the availability of water per person will be 1006 cubic meters in year 2025 and 635 cubic meters in 2050. Bihar is a water scarce state.
The following strategy of water management and development of irrigation will be adopted by the Water Resources Department under the Third Agriculture Road Map (2017-22): -
- The program to revive by March 2022 4.238 lakh hectares of irrigational capacity lost earlier.
- The program to increase the existing irrigation capacity of 26.69 lakh hectares to 36.313 lakh hectares by March 2022.
- The program to provide flood protection in 15.35 lakh hectare area by constructing 1731 km new embankments in the years 2017-22.
- The program to free 1.04 lakh hectares from water logging by the year 2022.
- To make lining of canals, make new channels or restore the old canals as per requirement in order to ensure that the water reaches the last point of the canal.
- Program to develop flood management in Koshi and Bagmati Basin and installation of a forecast system.
- In order to maintain the flow in the Ganga and to keep the river clean, prepare plans and schemes to create sewage processing plants in the cities along the banks of Ganga so that the treated water may be used for irrigation purposes.
There is a plan to work on several water management and irrigation programs under the Agriculture Road Map 2017-22.
1. Large and medium irrigation fields (2017-22).
2. River linking programs for inter basin transfer of water.
3. Program for water discharge in field.
4. Command area and water management program.
5. Flood Control and Flood Management Program.
4. Minor Water Resources
Under the Second Agricultural Road Map (2012-17), the Surface Irrigation Scheme (Ahar Pine, Tank, Weir and Udhadha Irrigation Scheme) had a target of creating new irrigation capacity of 10.249 lakh hectare against which 2.00 lakh hectare irrigation capacity has been created and the balance of 8.249 lakh hectare is yet to be created.
Under the Agriculture Road Map (2017-22) the following schemes will be implemented: -
1. Surface irrigation scheme.
2. Ground water irrigation scheme.
3. The target is to revive 3.735 lakh hectare of irrigation capacity lost earlier and an amount of Rs. 1843 crores has been budgeted for the same.
4. National Hydrology Project will be implemented for the underground water management.
5. Expenditure of Rs.2343 crores is estimated for detailed plan reporting, capacity development, increase in technical force and other activities.
6. Due to lack of operators of tube wells, the functional tube wells will be transferred to individual / individual groups, NGOs / livelihood groups etc in order to ensure their operation and maintenance.
7. For effective management and monitoring of programs related to underground water the Directorate of underground water resources will be reconstituted.
Thus, in next five years, 52.668 lakh hectare irrigation capacity will be created/ restored with an expenditure of 25,777 crores. To fulfill the target of this Road Map, technical force will have to be increased by 3-4 times.
In order to revolutionize the agriculture sector through optimal use of resources the state government, through co-operative system had implemented several programs to ensure availability of agricultural inputs and credentials to members of the farming community. These programs under the Agriculture Road Map 2012-2017 aimed to strengthen the co-operative system and structure and to create an ideal system of processing and marketing of agricultural products.
Important programs of Agriculture Road Map 2017-2022 are as follows :-
1. Infrastructure Development.
2. Price Promotion-Vegetable Processing and Marketing Scheme.
3. Establishment of Rice Mill of 2 Metric ton capacity (along with drier).
4. Implementation of employment oriented programs (poultry, goat rearing, apiculture, composite mill).
5. Ensuring availability of agricultural products (food, seeds, pesticides etc.).
6. Reinforcement of short-term agricultural credit flow through cooperative credit structure.
7. Crop Insurance Scheme.
8. Integrated Cooperative Development Project.
9. Development of Human Resources.
10.Membership increment and reinforcement of pacs.
6. Department Of Revenue and Land Reform
Land is the most critical resource for the development of housing for the eligible families of farmers and the landless for which geo-maps and updated revenue records are required. It is necessary to update the settlement register for land rent assessment and to update the authority records for ownership rights on land.
For this purpose work on survey of land was undertaken in the last agricultural road map. Under the Special Survey and Settlement Act, 2011 by the Department of Revenue and Land Reforms has undertaken special survey of land. After completion of the survey consolidation work will be taken up from the year 2019-2020 in chronological order.
Various programs will be implemented under Agriculture Road Map 2017-2022.
1. Aerial photography under the special survey program.
2. Digitization of revenue maps.
3. Computerization of land records.
4. Computerization of settlement register.
5. Implementation of Data Center-cum-modern archives.
6. Operation Land Interference Dehani.
7. Campaign shelter.
8. Digitization of District Archives.
7. Department of Food and Consumer Protection
Considering the increase in agricultural production, storage capacity plays a very important role in securing the agricultural produce and thus ensuring food security. Government has implemented the Food Security Act for the welfare of the people under which procurement, storage and distribution of 4.57 lakh Metric Ton of food grains is being done through the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) every month. All this requires appropriate storage capacity spread over the state.
Target set under Agriculture Road Map 2017-2022 :-
- Considering the required storage capacity under the Agriculture Road Map 2017-2022 the target has been set to increase the storage capacity of State Food Corporation.
- The target is to create additional 10.00 lakh Metric ton storage capacity by the year 2022.
- By the year 2022, there is a target to increase the storage capacity to 28.28 lakh Metric ton.
- The warehouses will be constructed on the basis of the requirement of the area and the availability of the plot at the appropriate place.
- Loan will be provided from Rural infrastructure Development Fund along with budgetery provisions by the Government for the construction of warehouses.
- Thus Food and Consumer Protection Department will need a total of 2262.40 crores to create 28.28 lakh Metric ton storage capacity by the year 2022
8. Energy Department:-
In order to bring about a revolutionary increase in the productivity in the agriculture sector the state government had prepared five year plans (2012-2017 and 2017-2022) in the year 2012-13. Under this road map the assessment of future needs for energy was done while preparing the plans. The main objective was to provide electricity through 11 K.V dedicated farm feeder to the existing governmental and private diesel operated tube wells and to the upcoming tubewells (about 19 lakhs) in next ten years. 10% of the total requirement of electricity was supposed to be provided by solar energy.
- The pre approved schemes and projects under the Agriculture Road Map have been incorporated in the Deendayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana and the total amount of Rs. 5827.23 crore has been approved for expenditure. The target is to complete the work by December 2018.
- Under this scheme the existing diesel pump sets employed for irrigation purposes will be converted to electric pump sets and at the new electric pump sets will be provided electric connections. For this purpose large number of power sub-stations will be created.
- Dedicated agriculture feeders will be created.
- Extension of L.T.Line to the tube wells installed by farmers and the installation of 25 K.V.A Transformer will be done under this scheme.
- After the completion of the plan 11 KV dedicated agriculture feeders along with electric structure will be constructed.
9. Environment and Forest Department
Climate change has become a reality today. There have been marked changes in the recent years. The quality, biodiversity and productivity of Bihar's natural forests are severely affected by the rising population and other environmental factors. Under these circumstances the Agriculture Road Map 2017-2022 has prepared a strategy for the green cover of Bihar and it has been designed in such a way that it will help increase the green cover in the state even in the changing environment. As opposed to traditional tree centric schemes the plans in the road map have been designed keeping the entire eco-system in mind. In natural forests rain water harvesting will be done which will also help in preventing soil erosion as well as water conservation. This strategy will reduce the incidents of fire in forests and will also help in conserving and promoting local species.
The proposals made by Agricultural Road Map 2017-22 in the field of ground water preservation, forestry, agricultural forestry and development of parks will prove to be a milestone in achieving prescribed mandates for forest preservation, ecological balance and pollution control.
Various programs will be implemented under Agriculture Road Map 2017-2022 :-
- The target is to raise the green cover of the state to 17% by the year 2022.
- According to estimates the state's green cover is likely to be 15 percent in the year 2017.
- For achieving this target on an average 1224 lakh plantation is required outside the forest land.
- The target of the Environment and Forest Department is to plant 15.10 crore plants.
- The department aims to plant 663 saplings outside the forest land during the plan period.
- Upgradation and development of around 120 parks is to be done during this period.
- The development of the wetlands has been planned.